WHERE COMES THE NAME “BARTIN” FROM
The origin of the name turned into Bartın from “PARTHENIA” is “PARTHENIOS”. Parthenios which is the name of Bartın river in the ancient age; is one of the hundreds of gods that are children of OKEANUS (OCEANUS), the Father of Gods, and the “God of Waters”. It means, “The divinity of waters or Spectacular water flow”. And, another meaning is “Chorus ballads for Young Girls” or “Young virgin” which is a name of the goddess Athena…
It is being understood from written references that in the ancient age, the Bartın City established on the Bartın Riverbank named Parthenios, had been called by the name PERTHENIA and it turned into Bartın in time. The celebrated poem, HOMEROS, tells in his ILIAD that; Spartans from also the country watered by the Parthenios River joined the warriors coming from Anatolia to protect Troy. And, Strabon from Amasya, too, mentions about Parthenios in one of his works.
From among the ancient cities in the historical “Paphlagonia” region; Sesamos (Amasra), Kromna (Kurucaşile) and Erythinoi (Çakraz), are within territories of Bartın. Ancient assets are mostly seen in Amasra district. Kuşkayası Yol Anıtı(Kuşkayası Road Monument) which is unique in the world, the fortress and the arming on it, the Church and the Chapel, Covered Bazaar, the Cave of Reclusion, are considered as the apparent face of the ancient city. Sections like Theatre (5000 persons), Forum, Vip path, acropolis and necropolis, are underground.
It is being defended that between years 3000-2400 B.C. before they established the Mycenaean Civilisation the Achaeans were settled on Western Anatolian coasts (Samsun, Sinop and Amasra) and thought to the local people the Copper Age Civilisation; and, that the inlands had been dominated by the Kaskians and Hittites. In the 4000-year history of Bartın and Amasra, one of the ancient cities of the Black Sea, it is being seen that they experienced separate periods for a long time and they shared the same fate from time to time. The first settlers of Bartın are the Kaskians in 14.century B.C. and the Hittites in the 13.century B.C. In early 12.century B.C., Bartın took place within territories of Bithinya; Amasra within territories of Paphlagonya; and, in late 12.century Bartın had fallen into the hands of the Phrygians, Amasra into the hands of the Phoenicians.
Bartın and its surroundings; entered into the domination of Cimmerians in late 7.century, Lydians in the 6.century, Persians in year 547, Macedonians in year 334, Pontus in year 279 and Romans in year 64. While Bartın had been experiencing these ages; Amasra (Sesamos) and Kurucaşile (Kromna) which were among the first Saida Colonies the Phoenicians established in the Black Sea in the 12.century; had undergone a dark age of one hundred years when they were abandoned in the 9.century by the Phoenicians and their partners the Carians, fell into the hands of Megarian immigrants descended from the Ions and they joined the Ion (Miletus) Colony. They had maintained this status of theirs also during the Persian period (547 B.C.) lasting longer than 200 years; and, during the Macedonian period (334-279 B.C.), they were governed firstly by the Phrygian Satrap and Queen Amastris (302-286 B.C.); and, later on, by General Eumenes jointly with Bartın and Ulus.
The city known by the name of Sesamos from the 12.century B.C. to the 3.century B.C.; when organized and governed as a City-State by the Queen Amastris in the Macedonian Period (302-286 ), it took the name of the queen. During this period of 16 years; it had become the center of the Symoikismos Sites Union comprised of Kromna (Kurucaşile-Tekkeönü), Tios (Filyos-Hisarönü) and Kyteros (Gideros) sites. Bartın and its surroundings; fell into the share of Byzantium after splitting of Rome-Byzantium in 395 A.D., took place within territories of the Turkish Emirate established by Süleyman Bey son of Kutalmış in the region between years 1084-1096 and, within territories of Byzantium again after the I. Crusades.
BARTIN UNDER ADMINISTRATION OF THE TURKS
It had been dominated by the Anatolian Seljukians during late 11.century A.D.; Candaroğulları Beylic in 1326 after the Seljukian Period of 200 years and, the Ottoman Empire from 1392. While Bartın and Ulus, entered under Turkish sovereignty in 11.century A.D.; Amasra, became Capital in the Pontus section of Bithinya-Pontus State governed by Satrapy during Roman period (B.C.64-A.D.395). During Byzantium (M.S.395-1460) period between years 1261-1460 it had been governed as a Genoese Colony; it had been included in the Ottoman territories in 1460 by Fatih Sultan Mehmet.
BARTIN IN THE OTTOMAN ERABetween years 1460-1692 of the Ottoman Era Bartın; took place within territories of Bolu District connected to the Anatolian Governorate. Bartın which was governed by Voivodship between years 1692-1811 upon abolishment of Bolu District, was connected again to Bolu District which was reestablished in 1811 as connected to Kastamonu Province. Due to its commercial potential Bartın which became the marketplace of the region and took the name of On İki Divan during this period, became district in 1867. And, Municipality Organization was established in 1876.
Bartın, was connected to Zonguldak which became Lieutenant Governorate in 1920 and province in 1924 and acquired the status of province on date 07 September 1991 through the law dated 28.08.1991 and numbered 3760. During the Ottoman Period while it was district, Amasra from among the districts connected to Bartın Province, was derated to the status of sub-district in the Republican Period; however, in 1987 it became District again; Ulus in 1944; Kurucaşile in 1957 became districts. Bartın has 4 districts as Merkez, Amasra, Ulus and Kurucaşile, 268 villages jointly with Arıt, Kozcağız, Kumluca, Abdipaşa and Hasankadı towns.